Mapping Techniques

Mapping techniques  give a visual representation of the analyzed system, in order to facilitate its comprehension and to realize a systematic analysis of complex systems and related risks.

These techniques are the basis for Risk Assessment and Risk Management activities, as they realize a structured description of the system assessed. This is a clear and robust starting point for the subsequent risk analysis activities and the use of related techniques (FMEA, FTA, ect…).

Mapping according to PTM

As well as using other common mapping techniques such as Flowchart diagram, SIPOC, Ischikawa (Fishbone diagram), PTM Consulting  developed a proprietary process and system mapping technique based on IDEF0 technique. This method allows to visually capture all the system functions and their relations, to communicate results and information, to support  the subsequent risk analysis and statistical activities. It is suitable to map process, product and projects.

Functional mapping

System  functions are represented by BOXES, connected INPUT, OUTPUT, CONTROL MECHANISM, represented by ARROWS.

Strenght points

  • DETAIL: PTM mapping has a hierarchical structure to reach the desired/ needed level of detail for the analysis considering the quantity and quality of information available on the assessed system.
  • TRACEABILITY: every element of mapping is recognisable and can not be confused with any other element in the process: the constant element traceability is fundamental above all for change management and for updating of the mapping process.
  • COMMUNICATION: mapping layout and technique can catch and select many different information that can be easily communicated accordingly to the target of the mapping process: safety, business, quality, realiability.
  • CONSISTENCY: the language  used by the mapping (box, arrow) is simple and coherent. This allows the consistency during the mapping draft and use assuring information sharing and objectivity.


Starting point for the subsequent analysis

The information gathered during the mapping activities are a solid and robust starting point for the subsequent project activities. In particular the mapping is a preliminary activity to:

  • Risk Analysis (FMEA, FTA, PHA).
  • Process and equipment URs identification.
  • Process parameters identification: CPPs.
  • Process flow analysis (e.g. data flow).
  • Process assessment and definition.
  • SOP review.
  • Gap analysis.